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We also showed that the impact of a displacement of the westerly wind belt on leakage can be regarded as a redistribution of momentum. Shifts of the westerlies equatorward increase the energy input over the southern portion of the supergyre and reduce it over the Southern Ocean. This results in enhanced leakage. Conversely, poleward shifts reduce leakage and the reduction would be accentuated following the adjustment (strengthening) of the circumpolar current. This result is at odds with previous claims.

Our investigation further suggested that the process behind the leakage response to changes in the westerlies is independent of model resolution, upstream transport of the Agulhas Current, and possibly retroflection energetics. However, this does not discredit the importance of nonlinearity in the region. The volumetric change in leakage within models is highly dependent on the correct representation of the numerous nonlinear interactions in the Agulhas system. More importantly, the corresponding changes in the amount of heat and salt being exported have the potential of impacting the circulation in the Atlantic.


This work received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013-Marie-Curie ITN, under Grant Agreement 238512, GATEWAYS project. Model experiments were performed at the high performance computing centers in Stuttgart (HLRS) and in Cape Town (CHPC) as well as at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (NESH). The Ariane-v2.2.6 Lagrangian package was used for Agulhas leakage calculation ( http://www.univ-brest.fr/lpo/ariane/ ). Altimetry data for model validation were downloaded ( http://aviso.oceanobs.com ).

October 2013
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The configure default will most often be ‘ a4 ’ if R_PAPERSIZE is unset. (If the (Debian Linux) program paperconf is found or the environment variable PAPERSIZE is set, these are used to produce the default.)

Next: Compilation flags , Previous: Setting paper size , Up: Configuration variables [ Contents ][ Index ]

Another precious variable is R_BROWSER , the default browser, which should take a value of an executable in the user’s path or specify a full path.

Its counterpart for PDF files is R_PDFVIEWER .

Next: Making manuals , Previous: Setting the browsers , Up: Configuration variables [ Contents ][ Index ]

If you have libraries and header files, e.g., for readline, in non-system directories, use the variables LDFLAGS (for libraries, using ‘ -L ’ flags to be passed to the linker) and CPPFLAGS (for header files, using ‘ -I ’ flags to be passed to the C/C++ preprocessors), respectively, to specify these locations. These default to ‘ -L/usr/local/lib ’ ( LDFLAGS , ‘ -L/usr/local/lib64 ’ on most 64-bit Linux OSes) and ‘ -I/usr/local/include ’ ( CPPFLAGS , but note that on most systems /usr/local/include is regarded as a system include directory and so instances in that macro will be skipped) to catch the most common cases. If libraries are still not found, then maybe your compiler/linker does not support re-ordering of -L and -l flags (years ago this was reported to be a problem on HP-UX with the native cc ). In this case, use a different compiler (or a front-end shell script which does the re-ordering).

These flags can also be used to build a faster-running version of R. On most platforms using gcc , having ‘ -O3 ’ in CFLAGS and FFLAGS produces worthwhile performance gains with gcc and gfortran , but may result in a less reliable build (both segfaults and incorrect numeric computations have been seen). On systems using the linker (especially those using R as a shared library), it is likely that including ‘ -Wl,-O1 ’ in LDFLAGS is worthwhile, and ‘ '-Bdirect,--hash-style=both,-Wl,-O1' ’ is recommended at https://lwn.net/Articles/192624/ . Tuning compilation to a specific family (e.g. ‘ -mtune=native ’ for gcc ) can give worthwhile performance gains, especially on older architectures such as ‘ ix86 ’.

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